If your Mac computer has started to slow down recently, or if you’re running out of space you’ll need to clean up your Mac. In this CleanMyMac X review, I’ll show how this software can run your computer more efficiently. Removing unnecessary files that may be clogging up and slowing down your machine.
CleanMyMac X is a software tool that helps you to clear your Mac of clutter and makes your computer run like new. The app takes care of all removing all your junk, malware and makes your computer faster and more organised. The more you use your Mac, the more temporary files, applications or large files will build up unnoticed until you realise that you’re out of space or finding that you’re apps are crashing.
Is CleanMyMac Free?
You will require a paid license or subscription to unlock all of CleanMyMac’s features. However, you can try CleanMyMac X for free before purchasing which includes a lot of features. There will be some limitations such as the amount of junk you can remove but it’s a great way to try out the software and read this CleanMyMac X review before committing to buy.
CleanMyMac can be purchased as a one time purchase, or you can subscribe year by year. The cost depends on the number of Macs you want to license.
Want to unlock all CleanMyMac features? See more info here!
Is CleanMyMac Safe?
Yes, CleanMyMac is safe, however, it is recommended that you back up your computer first. Because you have the ability to delete files from your hard drive, you need to make sure you aren’t deleting any required files. Also just because a file is large doesn’t mean it isn’t needed so only delete files when you are 100% happy to do so.
How to Use CleanMyMac X
Once you have downloaded and installed CleanMyMac X you can start up the application.
Smart scan is really the starting point, depending on whether you are on a free trial or subscription it will combine its different modules which include;
If its the first time you are running it, the smart scan may take some time but once it’s finished you’ll see the total amount of data that can be safely removed threats and optimised tasks.
Within the system junk module, you can do a quick scan to locate and remove any temporary files that may be stored on your machine. It will also go away and find and remove any broken items that may result in wrong application behaviour.
Photo Junk will remove any wasted space and temporary files within your Photos that may be taking up your valuable storage.
This function helps to save space by removing copies of your email and attachments that you may have downloaded. It also optimises so that you mail no longer stores things such as company logos and smaller attachments.
The Trash bins module is pretty much what it says on the label, it removes your trash. But not only that but it will look through all your applications and find anything that has been sent for deletion. This includes your mail and photo libraries.
Security within a Mac is definitely stronger and you should technically have less malware than a PC. But this doesn’t mean to say that your Mac won’t be acceptable to attach. Therefore this is a really valuable tool that will detect and neutralize malware threats: viruses, adware, worms, spyware.
Privacy will save you time opening every browser and manually deleting your browsing and download history as it does it all in one place. It will also get rid of your chat data like Skype or Messages.
This feature will scan you computer and find apps that are slowing it down. It then restarts them and also takes your login items to run them more efficiently too.
Within maintenance, it will improve your hard drive performance and also free up some RAM. It will reindex your Spotlight database too which should then help with speed and quality.
The uninstaller tool allows you to choose an application that you’d like to remove and will easily and quickly perform this task for you. So there’s no need to move certain files across to the trash bin and you’ll know that all traces will be removed from your Mac.
The updater tool is really handy as it will show you all the updated that you need to run in one place. This is great as having the latest version means that your computer will run more efficiently
Within extensions, you can disable these on-demand and also remove these in their entirety with all related items.
This tool gives you a size comparison of your folders and files so that you can see what files are taking up the most amount of space.
Large & Old Files
CleanMyMac X reviews all your files and will find any that are large and old for you to review and see whether they are still needed.
The shredder is a more secure process of deleting your files and folders. You are also won’t have any issues with Finder errors occurring.
How to Clean Your Mac with inbuilt Tools!
If you’d prefer not to use third-party software to clean your Mac, you can use the tools that are inbuilt into your machine and manually declutter it. The first thing you will need to do is check how much storage is available.
Go to the Apple icon on the top left-hand side of your desktop and select “About this Computer“
Select the “Storage” tab from the top, this will show you how much space you have available. If you have under around 20% space available you may find that your apps are crashing or your computer is running slowly.
Click “Manage“. You will then be presented with some recommendations.
Under the “Applications” tab on the left, you can delete any old apps that you are no longer using to help to free up some space. It’s also handy to sort this by “Last Accessed” to get an idea if you are still using these.
The “Documents” tab will help you to sort through documents and erase files you no longer need. These are categorized by “Large Files“, “Downloads“, “Unsupported Apps” and your “File Browser“.
Take a look through your large files and delete out any you no longer require to free up some space. Please be aware though that if you click onto “Delete” this is immediate and that this does not go into the Trash Bin.
Also, search “Downloads” for any files you don’t need. You may find that there are installer package files. These are required to install software, but no longer required once you have installed the app.
Under the “Music” tab is worth checking to see if you have any old podcasts in there. Or music that you no longer need.
Review and open your “Photos” and videos to see if there is any way you can free up some space there. I’d recommend using iCloud if you can. In this way, you can feel a little less anxious about deleting these type of files from your Mac.
If you’re new to creating content on YouTube and want to upload a video, there is a great extension called TubeBuddy. In this TubeBuddy review, I’ll show you how it can help you give your video its best possible start. The success of your YouTube video has a lot to do with the YouTube algorithms but using this tool can really help you give it the best chance at success.
TubyBuddy can save you hours of time with bulk processing tools. Plus, it can help you to optimise your channel with video SEO tools. And monitor your progress with its research tools. With tools like this, TubeBuddy could really be a YouTuber’s best friend.
TubeBuddy Extension Review
Tubebuddy is a simple web browser extension that adds a layer of tools directly on top of YouTube’s website. With the help of TubeBuddy you can manage, optimise and grow your channel. The extension can be downloaded quickly for free and is available for Chrome, Firefox, iPhone and android. It also integrates directly into YouTube. TubeBuddy offers tools for channel optimisation, analytics, tag management, video SEO, keyword research, productivity, bulk processing, marketing, and more which I’ll show you later in this TubeBuddy review.
TubeBuddy was launched back in 2014 and the company has been building tools in the YouTube space for over 12 years. TubeBuddy’s mission is to build tools to make being a YouTuber easier and to help to make you more productive. The extension is pretty popular with over a million users. It also has an excellent review rating of over 4.5 stars on the chrome store.
Is TubeBuddy Safe?
Tube-Buddy is not only safe but also YouTube certified. The extension also directly integrates with YouTube channels. Some other products and tools require you to leave YouTube in order to access their functionality. However, TubeBuddy’s toolkit features load right within YouTube’s website, in line with your daily workflow.
How much is TubeBuddy?
There are 3 paid licenses that unlock some additional features. These are ‘Pro’, ‘Star’ and ‘Legend’. However, you may find that the free version may be perfect for you initially. It’s particularly good if you’re on a budget and want to try it out to see if it helps you. If you go ahead with the paid licenses, you’re not tied into a contract and can cancel at any time.
If you’re looking for a discount on TubeBuddy’s pricing, check out their Pricing page. On there you’ll find that they offer discounts for smaller channels, first-time buyers, network partners and for annual upgrades.
Top TubeBuddy Features
Depending on the license you decided to purchase, or whether you are running a free trial, TubeBuddy has a whole host of features available. In this TubeBuddy review I’ll give you some information about some of my favourites;
Videolytics is a great way to check out your competition. With this feature, it gives you a snapshot of how you compare to other YouTubers. It’ll give stats such as the number of views and comments, show you their social summary, and how their channel is performing. As well as all this, you can check out their SEO, best practices and not only see the tags that they’ve used in their video and how they ran, but you can also copy these tags and use them in your own video!
With the help of Suggested Tags, you can find out the best tags to drive the most views to your video. The idea is that this will get your videos ranked higher in the YouTube search results and save you time in researching these in the process!
Upload Best Practices
Best Practices by TubeBuddy is great, when you’re creating your uploads it gives you a guideline to follow. This works as hints and tips for you to give your video its best possible chance at success in the tricky world of YouTube algorithms. Plus you can even add your own items onto your checklist as a reminder.
Best Time to Publish
TubeBuddy will work out the best time to publish your videos to help achieve the best possible engagement with your audience. Plus, they will even calculate this down to the exact day/hours.
Card & End Screen Templates
By creating Card and End Screen templates with the help of TubeBuddy you can save and re-use thse for future videos. This is a really handy tool for saving you time in re-creating these for every video. This also helps with the continuity across your channel so that you’re videos follow the same look and feel.
Engagement will help with the YouTube algorithms. So it’s important to try and boost your engagement with your audience. As your channel grows, the more comments you will receive and the more you’ll need to respond to. With the comment filter, you can view comments you haven’t yet responded to, comments that contain questions, negativity or profanity, etc. This is really handy for saving time when replying to your viewers.
Downloading the TubeBuddy extension is really simple. All you need to do is click onto this link.
Then, once you’ve downloaded the TubeBuddy extension simply head over to YouTube.com, and all the features will be immediately available shown by the TubeBuddy logo.
TubeBuddy vs VidIQ
The great thing about TubeBuddy and VidIQ is that they both offer free browser extensions and free accounts and have various premium levels and features. Both TubeBuddy and VidIQ have a lot to offer in terms of their video SEO and analytics features which are great. They make it very easy to manage and moderate your YouTube accounts. Plus you can use both extensions at the same time, meaning that you can get the best of both worlds!
TubeBuddy can be seen as the less private of the two as you do need to share a lot of personal information due to the required partnership with channels. However, TubeBuddy also more features and is seen as more affordable than VidIQ.
I personally recommend TubeBuddy over VideoIQ to help to grow your channel, get more views and subscribers.
Remembering passwords can be a nightmare. As the need for more complex and varied passwords increases, the harder they are to recall. However, within this LastPass review, you’ll see by using the password manager, LastPass this pain can be eliminated by it remembering all your passwords, so you don’t have to.
Check out my LastPass video tutorial, where I walk you through the very beginning, creating an account, adding passwords to your password manager and how to generate secure passwords. I then show you how to store online shopping profiles with payment cards and the emergency access feature!
What Is LastPass?
LastPass solves a lot of issues that users currently have with creating passwords. Security practices state that you shouldn’t re-use the same passwords, have any too simple or personal so how do you remember them all? Well, LastPass is a password manager that makes it easier to manage all your online accounts in one place.
You can generate new, secure passwords to replace any that are currently insecure and auto-fill these securely when you log in.
And in this LastPass Review, you’ll see its not just limited to storing and auto-filling passwords, you can also add secure notes, payment cards, addresses, bank accounts and so much more.
How Much Does LastPass Cost?
LastPass is free on desktops, laptops, Android, or iPhone. Plus, you can sync your passwords across these devices. There are also paid subscriptions such as Premium or Family with advanced functionality such as the Emergency Access or the ability to add more users. Any new users will receive a free trial of the premium subscription for 30 days to try out. There are also 4 business paid subscriptions available.
LastPass Family Price
LastPass Family offers everything Premium offers, but for an extra $1 you will get 6 Premium licenses with unlimited shared folders. I personally chose the ‘Families’ plan over the ‘Premium’. My partner and I run a couple of businesses together and with the help of LastPass Family, we are able to easily manage our online passwords. We’d got into a really bad habit of reusing passwords across multiple sites, mostly because there’s so many, and they were simple to remember. However, by being able to generate secure and complex passwords our accounts should now be more secure.
LastPass Business Price
LastPass for Business covers a host of features, from authentication to access to passwords. Their business subscriptions manage every entry point to your business so you can mitigate risk while improving employee productivity.
There are 4 different plans, starting from $3 per month, per user. These are plans for Teams, Enterprise, MFA and Identity. The plans vary in size and features depending on a business’ requirements.
Is LastPass Password ManagerSafe?
Nothing is ever 100% safe and LastPass was hacked back in 2015, and quite publicly had a bug that could potentially expose passwords. However, during both of these security breaches, there is no record of bugs being exploited or passwords being accessed. Users can set up two-factor authentication as an extra level of security and authenticate with fingerprint/facial recognition technology on mobile devices.
What if LastPass Gets Hacked?
LastPass doesn’t store your master password nor do they access date inside your fault. So they use what is called a ‘Zero-Knowledge” security model. So, LastPass cant decrypt your data. Therefore, if LastPass were to get hacked, you’d still be safe as the hackers. They also state that they utilise industry best practices to protect their infrastructure. They are also market-tested by 43,000 companies including Fortune 500 and leading tech enterprises.
How to Use LastPass
If you haven’t already got yourself an account, the first thing you’ll need to do is register/create one. So head over to www.lastpass.com and click “Get Free Account”.
You’ll be prompted to enter your email and Master Password. You’re Master Password is the only password you’ll need and is not stored by LastPass so ensure you make it memorable and possibly enter something into the optional reminder.
Once created, you can start saving your passwords to LastPass and create more secure passwords for any that are currently deemed as weak.
The LastPass extension is available for Google, Firefox, Safari, Opera, Internet Explorer, and Brave. After you have downloaded LastPass, you’ll find the LastPass button on your toolbar.
This is where you can log in to LastPass.
Tip: If you have multiple browsers, you will need to install the extension on each of those browsers so that it syncs across all your browsers.
LastPass App for Android/iPhone
Your LastPass password manager credentials can be used across all your devices allowing you to add and pre-fill your passwords from anywhere. LastPass is available on GooglePlay, the AppStore or Windows Phone.
If you’re installing LastPass onto an iPhone or Android you’ll need to go to the Settings on your phone.
Select Passwords & Accounts and choose AutoFill Passwords
From here you will need to ensure that AutoFill Passwords is switched to “On” and LastPass is selected with a tick.
How to Login to LastPass
Once your account has been created you will want to log in to LastPass to access all the features. To login to LastPass, click onto your chrome extension or app. You will then be prompted to enter your email and master password.
To save you time, you can ask LastPass to remember your email address or password for your account. But please don’t consider this if you are using a shared computer or device.
How to Save your Passwords to LastPass
Once you have created your login, you can go ahead and start adding your passwords to LastPass. These passwords can be done manually or in bulk.
How to Import Your Passwords Into LastPass
If you already have a password manager, you can import your passwords across from a host of available sources. Which should save you manually importing these all individually.
Within your LastPass Vault, Select “More Options” from the bottom left of your screen.
Select “Advanced” and then “Import“
In the Source dropdown are all the available types you can import.
If the option isn’t on the list you may need to add your passwords manually.
How to Enter Your Passwords into LastPass
The easiest way to manually add in your passwords is by logging into the website that you’d like to add. When you have added your username and password LastPass will prompt you to save the password to its vault after you’ve successfully logged in.
Click Add and the password, username and website will be added to the LastPass vault.
When you log into the site again, LastPass will automatically enter the credentials for you, so you don’t need to remember them again!
You can also add passwords directly into your LastPass vault. To enter these, log in to your LastPass account via the website and from your dashboard click onto the + icon, under passwords.
How to Generate Passwords
Within LastPass, you can generate more secure and complex passwords for those manually created that may be deemed as weak. There are a few ways to perform this task.
Within the vault, click onto the site and then click the spanner (edit) icon. You then have the option to auto-change your password.
Please be aware that this has not been successful for me on every website and you may have to use the other method.
The other method starts with logging into the site where you would like to change your password.
The at the current password, right-click onto the field, click LastPass and select “Fill“.
The password stored within LastPass will then populate into the field. To generate a new secure password, click onto the icon in the far corner of the “New Password” field.
Then click onto “Show Options” and you can change the complexity of your password.
Tip: If this is a password that you will always automatically fill from LastPass you can go as complex as you wish. However if this is a password you will manually enter in the future you may want something more simple.
Click Fill Password once your password has been created and it should automatically populate your New Password and Confirm Password fields.
LastPass will then prompt you to ask if you want to Update the Password? Click Update.
How to Add Payment Cards to Auto-Fill on Shopping Sites
If you’d like to add credit cards so that they auto-fill when paying for things online like shopping sites. You can add your payment card details to LastPass.
Select “Payment Cards” from the left-hand side of the screen and then click onto the + icon in the bottom right of the screen.
You can then start to enter your card details and add any associated notes into the Notes field. In this example, I have added the contact number for Lost & Stolen cards.
When you then go onto a website and you are prompted to enter your card details, you will see the LastPass symbol.
From this screen, you can click onto “FILL” to automatically fill all the details from the payment card you have entered.
What is LastPast Emergency Access?
With Emergency Access, you can give someone you trust (like friends & family) access to your LastPass vault. This is a feature of the premium plan, however, is free for you to try as part of the 30-day premium trial.
To provide a contact with access to your LastPass account, click onto the + icon in the bottom right-hand corner of the screen.
Then enter their email address in the setup screen.
You then have a wait time that you can select from the dropdown list.
If your emergency contact requests access to your account it will send you an email and a timer starts. In the below example, you have 48hrs to respond. If you don’t respond within this timeframe the contact will have access to your account.
When you have adjusted the Wait Time you can “Send Invite“.
Having recently reviewed and tested Travala.com the new leading blockchain booking platform, I was surprised by the savings I was able to make. This was the first time I was able to make a hotel reservation using my Bitcoin, while also earn $50 free crypto in the process. While I made a massive saving using Travala and received $50 worth of their AVA token, I experienced a few issues teething problems during the process.
I don’t actually spend my crypto, I buy and hold for the long term. But after seeing a Travala review from DataDash on Youtube I was excited to hear you could now make a hotel reservation by spending your bitcoin. It was great to see another exciting non-technical opportunity to help grow cryptocurrency adoptions, that even my Mum would understand (kind of).
I spend most of the year away from home and spend most of my life in hotel rooms or Airbnb’s. Similar to the likes of Booking.com and Expedia, Travala is an online travel agency where you can book hotels, serviced accommodation, holiday homes, etc. This UK based company was created in 2017 and has quickly grown into the world’s leading blockchain-based travel booking platform.
At the end of 2019, Travala announced they had partnered up with one of the world’s biggest travel agencies, Booking.com. This partnership between Travala.com and Booking.com is a massive opportunity for them to grow into a major player. Prior to his partnership, the accommodation options available on Travala were limited. Now many of the listings found on Booking.com can be booked through Travala.com, at a discounted price.
“This partnership allows our users to access Booking.com’s accommodation listings, as well as the listings from several other leading travel suppliers, which is a fantastic use case for our own AVA token and another huge step towards mass cryptocurrency adoption“
Matt Luczynski, CEO of Travala.com
Why is Travala Different?
Travala pride themselves on being the leading cryptocurrency-friendly accommodation booking platform. Being able to make a hotel reservation using your crypto is a massive selling point for Travala. Plus a huge step towards mass cryptocurrency adoption.
As well as supporting over 20+ cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Stellar, Nano & Dash (with further partnerships in the pipeline). You also have the option to pay the traditional way of debit/credit card and with Paypal. Although using these methods, you may miss out on some massive discounts.
The AVA token is the cryptocurrency created by Travala and built on the Binance chain. The AVA token is now available on the Binance DEX exchange, and can also be found on HitBTC, KuCoin, and BitMart.
Using the AVA token to make payment for accommodation on Travala.com, will earn you rewards from 2-5%. When completing your first reservation of $100 or more on Travala.com, you will receive $50 worth of AVA. This can then be used to make another reservation or potentially sent to a cryptocurrency exchange such as Binance DEX and exchanged.
Travala provides a fantastic sign-up offer for new customers to its crypto-friendly online booking platform. Each new customers who sign up to Travala.com and completes a reservation of $100 or more will receive $50 worth of free AVA tokens. Once you have received your free AVA reward of $50 of AVA rewards straight into your wallet by inviting people to Travala. For every person you invite that completes a booking of $100 or more, you will both receive $50!
Travala SMART Program
Travala’s SMART program provides exclusive discounts and loyalty rewards to its members. Once a member you can expect to receive up to a 5% discount off the accommodation listed prices, plus up to 5% loyalty reward after you have completed your stay.
The percentage that members receive will depend on the amount of AVA tokens held in their Travala wallet and the SMART member level they have activated. Essentially, more AVA tokens equal more rewards.
Travala members can activate their SMART member level through the Smart Program page on the Travela.com website, and then by clicking the “Activate” button.
SMART discounts are applied directly from the listed prices from the search results through to checkout.
SMART loyalty rewards are paid to members in AVA tokens and credited to their inbuilt Travala wallet.
Finding Deals on Travala.com
Travala states on their website that you will get your accommodation 15% cheaper than elsewhere. To put this to the test, I have searched for the same hotel, on the same dates, on both Travala and Booking.com and below are the results…
On Booking.com the Deluxe Room with King Bed is $837 for a Non-refundable rate. However, once you add the taxes and charges it totals; $1,025.92.
I also did the same search with Expedia and the total price with taxes showed as $1,005.26
On Travala.com the Deluxe Room with King Bed is $932.04 for a Non-refundable rate, which includes taxes. Meaning you will save $88.88 by booking with Travala rather than Booking.com! Not only that but you also get 2% Giveback which will be paid into your wallet in AVA rewards after your stay.
Best Price Guarantee
In case you do find a cheaper price elsewhere, Travala also provides a “Best Price Guarantee” offer. This means that they will match or beat any competitor’s price. Under their terms, if you book accommodation on Travala.com and find it cheaper on another website you can claim for a refund for the difference up to 24 hours before your check-in at the property. Refunds payment are paid in AVA tokens to your Travala.com wallet.
Unfortunately, for users wanting to book their accommodation on the go, Travala.com does not currently have an app. However, state that the Travala.com app is coming soon to Google Play and the App Store. Mind you, this has been “coming soon” for a little while now with no date yet set in stone! When they do finally release this, they guarantee you’ll get the best prices when you search and book on the app.
Travala.com has a simple, clean interface. It’s easy to use and navigate. Compared to the likes of Booking.com, the search filters are limited, so it’s difficult to narrow down your search options. When you have found your accommodation, and want more details, the information isn’t there. So I found myself googling the hotel, to find the information I wanted to see. These issues are quite minor compared to the savings you can make with Travala.
One way I personally get around these issues is using Booking.com to find my accommodation. Once I have found what I’m looking for, I then search the name of the hotel on Travala. 9 times out of 10 you will find it on there and can book at the discounted price.
I believe these small issues are growing pains and inevitable for a business growing so fast, making a number of new partnerships over the last few months. With time and money invested into the platform, I can imagine Travala soon rivaling their much larger peers.
Making a Reservation on Travala.com
The other issue I found, was when making a hotel reservation on Travala, it’s not confirmed straight away. Instead, this goes into pending and you need to wait for a confirmation email. I’ve experienced this with other booking platforms (such as Priceline) but had never had any issues. However, on this occasion I tried to make a reservation, only to be told it was no longer available. This was very frustrating as it had taken a while to choose this particular hotel. But when I began the search again, the same hotel was showing as available? So I went through the whole process again deciding to choose a different payment option, only for the exact same thing to happen again!! I finally gave up and went out for dinner. When I was out I received an email…
We are writing this email regarding your booking at Paramount Times Square.
We noticed you made 2 payments successfully but the bookings have failed. However, we are still able to complete the booking for you with the following information…
On both occasions, Travala listed the hotel as available. I made the reservation, they took the money and then rejects the reservation. I replied to Travala’s email and confirmed I was happy for one of the reservation to go through. Only to be told by the agent the hotel was now no longer available. Grrrrr.
At this point, I was ready to call it quits and completely give up on Travala. But when I went to make the same reservation via Booking.com instead there was a massive price increase compared to Travala. On Travala, not only was I going to receive $50 free AVA, but I was also going to save another $60 compared to Booking.com. Checking the availability on Travala again, I was determined to make this reservation and fortunately enough, on the 4th attempt, the reservation finally went through… I hoped?
Arriving in New York, with no confirmation email from the Hotel (only from Travala), we were a little worried if the reservation had actually gone through. However, luckily enough all our worries were in vain. We were on the list and we were getting in!!
As someone who is a frequent traveler and a crypto enthusiast, this platform really gives you a great opportunity to start using your cryptocurrency day to day. Plus, who doesn’t want to make a massive saving when booking their hotel accommodation.
It has a clean design and looks simple to navigate, however, it can be tedious at times. I tried to get my mum to make a reservation using Travala and she found the process very difficult and would have given up, of she was the one paying. However, as I said these are teething problems and over time these issues will be resolved.
One thing I’d personally like to see included in later versions is the ability to split payments. For example, if I didn’t have enough AVA to pay for my accommodation, it would be nice to have the opportunity to pay any outstanding balance with either crypto or FIAT, rather than an all or nothing.
As a property owner myself, with a short term rental business in the UK, I was interested to find out what the process was like with Travala as a host. So, I booked myself a stay at my own accommodation via Travala.com (as my properties are currently listed on Booking.com). Unfortunately, there were quite a few issues that I experienced from a host’s point of view and to be successful, I can only hope that these will resolve in the future.
As a host, we have personally had some issues with credit card fraud in the past. Specifically with chargebacks through our online payment system, when we take reservation payments directly from guests. So it will be really interesting to see if by using Cryptocurrency with Travala.com whether this will eliminate this issue.